SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The accounting estimates and assumptions that require management’s most significant, difficult, and subjective judgment include the recognition and measurement of patient service fees, net, hospital, management and other revenue, the collectability of accounts receivable, the fair value measurements of goodwill and intangible assets, the assessment of the recoverability of goodwill, the assessment of useful lives and recoverability of intangible assets and long-lived assets, recognition and measurement of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, the assessment of unrecognized tax benefits, the valuation and recognition of stock-based compensation expense, among others. Actual results experienced by the Company may differ from management’s estimates.
Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised and also in future periods when the revision affects both current and future periods. Significant assumptions, judgments, and estimates that management has made at the end of the reporting period that could result in a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the event that actual results differ from assumptions made, relate to, but are not limited to, the following: patient service fees, net; hospital, management, and other revenue; accounts receivable; and due to/from related parties.
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with various financial institutions. The Company did not have any cash equivalents as of December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, bank debt, trade and other receivables, trade and other payables, acquisition indebtedness, convertible debentures, and finance leases. The carrying amounts of the Company’s cash, receivables, and payables, as reflected in the consolidated financial statements approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these items. The other long-term instruments approximate their carrying amounts as assessed by management.
The Company’s financial instruments are exposed to certain financial risks, including concentration risk, liquidity risk, and market risk.
Concentration risk is the risk of financial loss to the Company if the counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations and arises principally from the Company’s cash and trade receivables. The carrying amount of the financial assets represents the maximum credit exposure.
The Company limits its exposure to concentration risk on cash by placing these financial instruments with high-credit, quality financial institutions and only investing in liquid, investment grade securities.
The Company has a number of individual third party payors and no individual third party insurers that represent a concentration risk. Net patient service fee revenue is recognized in the period in which IONM services are rendered, at net realizable amounts from third party payors when collection is reasonably assured and can be estimated. The Company bills national, regional and local third party insurers which pose a low risk of insolvency because they are regulated by state insurance commissions which require appropriate reserves to be maintained to reimburse healthcare providers for submitted claims. The majority of the Company’s services are rendered on an out-of-network basis and billed to third party insurers. Since allowable charges for services rendered out-of-network are not contractually based, the Company establishes net realized value by evaluating the payor mix, historical settlement and payment data for a given payor type, and current economic conditions to calculate an appropriate net realizable value for net patient service revenue and accounts receivables. These estimates are subject to ongoing monitoring and adjustment based on actual experience with final settlements and collections and management revises its net patient service revenue estimates as necessary in subsequent periods.
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will not be able to meet its financial obligations as they are due and arises from the Company’s management of working capital. The Company ensures that there is sufficient liquidity to meet its short-term business requirements, considering its anticipated cash flows from operations and its holdings of cash. A significant portion of the trade and other payables balance is related to amounts owed to third-parties for professional fees and the accrual of billing and collection fees to be paid to the Company’s third party billing and collection vendors. The billing and collection fees are accrued in the same period as services are rendered and revenue is recognized by the Company. The accrued billing and collection fees are calculated based on a percentage of the estimated net realized value of the of the revenue recognized. The accrued fees to be paid to the third party billing and collection vendors are contingent on cash collections and are typically paid the following month after collections are achieved. Additional billing and collection fees are accrued when the cash collected exceeds the revenue recognized by the Company at the time of services rendered.
Market risk is the risk that changes in the market prices, such as interest rates, will affect the Company’s income or the value of the financial instruments held. The Company’s policy is to invest cash at floating rates of interest, in order to maintain liquidity, while achieving a satisfactory return for the Company. Fluctuations in the interest rates impact the value of cash but such fluctuations will have no significant impact to the Company’s financial instruments.
|Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded as the difference, if any, between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the net tangible and identified intangible assets acquired under a business combination. Goodwill also includes acquired assembled workforce, which does not qualify as an identifiable intangible asset. The Company reviews impairment of goodwill annually in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the goodwill might be impaired. The Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, the Company determines that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, then the quantitative goodwill impairment test is unnecessary.
If, based on the qualitative assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, then the Company proceeds to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. The Company first determines the fair value of a reporting unit using a Level 1 input which estimates the fair value of the Company’s equity by utilizing the Company’s trading price as of the end of the reporting period. The Company then compares the derived fair value of a reporting unit with the carrying amount. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss will be recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. During the fourth quarter 2022, the Company determined there to be an indicator of goodwill impairment based upon the Company’s market capitalization exceeding book capital. The Company
its analysis and recorded an impairment charge $3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. There was no impairment charge for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Identified intangible assets
Identified finite-lived intangible assets consist of trade names and other agreements. The tradename has an indefinite life and is not being amortized, while the agreements are being amortized on a straight-line bases over their estimated useful lives:
The Company makes judgments about the recoverability of finite-lived intangible assets whenever facts and circumstances indicate that the useful life is shorter than originally estimated or that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. If such facts and circumstances exist, the Company assesses recoverability by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related asset or group of assets over their remaining lives against their respective carrying amounts. Impairments, if any, are based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets. If the useful life is shorter than originally estimated, the Company would accelerate the rate of amortization and amortize the remaining carrying value over the new shorter useful life. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company’s estimated useful life for doctor agreements decreased to one year from 10 years since the Company believes this useful life better reflects the assessment surgeons make when evaluating service providers. As a result, the Company recorded additional amortization of $3.1 million related to this change in estimate. Additionally, the Company recorded impairment charges related to trade names that are no longer in use during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 of $117 thousand and nil, respectively.
|Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the related assets’ estimated useful lives:
Expenditures that materially increase asset life are capitalized, while ordinary maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred.
|Debt Issuance Costs
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs are presented in the consolidated balance sheets as a deduction from the carrying amount of the long-term debt and are amortized over the term of the associated debt to interest expense using the effective interest method. In addition, the Company elects to continue to defer the unamortized debt issuance costs when it pays down a portion of the debt as the prepayment is factored into the terms agreed to on the debt.
|Share Issuance Costs
Share Issuance Costs
Costs attributable to the raising of capital are applied against the related share capital. Costs related to shares not yet issued are recorded as deferred share issuance costs. These costs are deferred until the issuance of shares to which the costs relate.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, accrued liabilities, and noncurrent lease liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company generally uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated rate of interest for collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. As a practical expedient, the Company elected, for all office and facility leases, not to separate non-lease components from lease components and instead to account for each separate lease component and its associated non-lease components as a single lease component.
|Revenue Recognition and Collection Cycle
Revenue Recognition and Collection Cycle
The Company recognizes revenue primarily from fees for IONM services provided. Revenue is recognized at a point in time upon satisfaction of the Company’s performance obligation to a customer, which is at the time of service. Revenue is based on the Company’s best estimate of the transaction price the Company expects to receive in exchange for the services rendered. Our estimate of the transaction price includes estimates of price concessions for such items as contractual allowances from third-party payors, potential adjustments that may arise from payment, and uncollectible amounts.
The Company performs a collection analysis for out-of-network billings to private insurance companies and adjusts its estimated transaction price if the collection rate is different from the amount recorded in previous periods. Historically, this analysis is performed monthly.
The cash collection cycles of the Company may be protracted due to the majority of its revenue being billed to third-party commercial insurance payors on an out-of-network basis. The collection cycle for IONM to out-of-network payors may require an extended period to maximize reimbursement on claims, which results in accounts receivable growth tied to the Company’s overall growth in technical and professional service revenues. The collection cycle may consist of multiple payments from out-of-network private insurance payors, as the collection process entails multiple rounds of denials, underpayments, appeals and negotiations as part of the process to maximize the reimbursement yield on claims. Based on the Company’s historical experience, claims generally become uncollectible once they are aged greater than 24 months; as such, included in the Company’s allowance for implicit price concessions is an estimate of the likelihood that a portion of the Company’s accounts receivable may become uncollectible due to age. The Company continues collection efforts on claims aged over 24 months. Collections on claims are recorded as revenue in the period received as such collections represent a subsequent change to the initial estimation of the transaction price.
Technical and professional service revenue
Technical and professional service revenue is recognized at a point in time in which performance obligations are satisfied at the amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled. Performance obligations are satisfied when IONM services are rendered. The majority of the Company’s services are rendered on an out-of-network basis and billed to third party commercial insurers. Since allowable charges for services rendered out-of-network are not explicitly identified in the contract, the Company determines the transaction price based on standard charges for services provided, reduced by an estimate of contractual adjustments and implicit price concessions based on evaluating the payor mix, historical settlements and payment data for payor types and current economic conditions to calculate an appropriate net realizable value for revenue and accounts receivable. These estimates are subject to ongoing monitoring and adjustment based on actual experience with final settlements and collections and management revises its revenue estimates as necessary in subsequent periods.
The Company recognizes revenue from managed service arrangements on a contractual basis. Revenue is recorded when the Company has completed its performance obligations, which is the time of service.
|Stock-based Compensation Expense
Stock-based Compensation Expense
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation expense in accordance with the authoritative guidance on stock-based payments. Under the provisions of the guidance, stock-based compensation expense is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the option using a Black-Scholes option pricing model and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.
The authoritative guidance also requires that the Company measure and recognize stock-based compensation expense upon modification of the term of a stock award. The stock-based compensation expense for such modification is the sum of any unamortized expense of the award before modification and the modification expense. The modification expense is the incremental amount of the fair value of the award before the modification and the fair value of the award after the modification, measured on the date of modification. In the event the modification results in a longer requisite period than in the original award, the Company has elected to apply the pool method where the aggregate of the unamortized expense and the modification expense is amortized over the new requisite period on a straight-line basis. In addition, any forfeiture will be based on the original requisite period prior to the modification.
Calculating stock-based compensation expense requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected term of the stock-based awards, stock price volatility, and the pre-vesting option forfeiture rate. The Company estimates the expected life of options granted based on historical exercise patterns, which are believed to be representative of future behavior. The Company estimates the volatility of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant based on historical volatility. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent the Company’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, its stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. The Company estimates the forfeiture rate based on historical experience of its stock-based awards that are granted, exercised and cancelled. If the actual forfeiture rate is materially different from the estimate, stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what was recorded in the current period.
The Company may grant performance share units (“PSUs”) to employees or consultants. PSU awards will vest if certain employee-specific or company-designated performance targets are achieved. If minimum performance thresholds are achieved, each PSU award will convert into common stock at a defined ratio depending on the degree of achievement of the performance target designated by each individual award. If minimum performance thresholds are not achieved, then no shares will be issued. Based upon the expected levels of achievement, stock-based compensation is recognized on a straight-line basis over the PSUs’ requisite service periods. The expected levels of achievement are reassessed over the requisite service periods and, to the extent that the expected levels of achievement change, stock-based compensation is adjusted in the period of change and recorded on the statements of operations and the remaining unrecognized stock-based compensation is recorded over the remaining requisite service period.
|Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense), net
The Company records transactions to other income (expense), net that are not related to the normal course of business. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded other expense of $1.3 million primarily related to the settlement of amounts due from MSAs and PEs due to the termination of those agreements. The Company expects to
incur similar settlement charges during the first half of 2023 related to the termination of MSA and/or PE agreements during 2023.
|Segment and Geographic Information
Segment and Geographic Information
The Company operates in one segment and its services are sold nationally in the United States directly through the Company.
The Company must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments are used in the calculation of tax credits, tax benefits, tax deductions, and in the calculation of certain deferred taxes and tax liabilities. Significant changes to these estimates may result in an increase or decrease to the Company’s tax provision in a subsequent period.
The provision for income taxes was determined using the asset and liability method prescribed by GAAP. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes. If and when it is determined that a deferred tax asset will not be realized for its full amount, the Company will recognize and record a valuation allowance with a corresponding charge to earnings. The calculation of the current tax liability involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations and in determining the liability for tax positions, if any, taken on the Company’s tax returns in accordance with authoritative guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes.
From time to time, the Company may be involved in legal and administrative proceedings and claims of various types. The Company records a liability in its consolidated financial statements for these matters when a loss is known or considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Management reviews these estimates in each accounting period as additional information becomes known and adjusts the loss provision when appropriate. If the loss is not probable or cannot be reasonably estimated, a liability is not recorded in the consolidated financial statements. If a loss is probable but the amount of loss cannot be reasonably estimated, the Company discloses the loss contingency and an estimate of possible loss or range of loss (unless such an estimate cannot be made). The Company does not recognize gain contingencies until they are realized. Legal costs incurred in connection with loss contingencies are expensed as incurred.
|Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2023, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No, 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, and its related amendments using the prospective method. The new standard requires the use of a current expected credit loss impairment model to develop and recognize credit losses for financial instruments at amortized cost when the asset is first originated or acquired, and each subsequent reporting period. The adoption of this standard will not have a material impact to the Company’s 2023 financial statements.